Over the past week I spend some time on investigating and learning how to setup an XMPP1 (or “Jabber”) environment for secure messaging via command-line. Word on the street was, it’ll be a pain and frustrating and, yes, partly I have to agree, but given that one is working with a more or less recent and commonly used system the frustration is manageable :)
For my setup and the descriptions below I used
- an Ubuntu-Linux based system, specifically Ubuntu Server 16.04.2 LTS (Xenial)
- a FQDN2 (
my.fqdnin this tutorial) so we don’t have to mess around with IPs (optional)
Server-side with ejabberd
For the server-side I used ejabberd3, mainly because it’s widly-used, open-source and used by the Jabber foundation4. Installing ejabberd is pretty straight-forward and requires close to no configuration at all.
basti@home:~$ sudo apt-get install ejabberd -y basti@home:~$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure ejabberd
The latter will setup ejabberd with a pretty solid default configuration. Make sure to use your FQDN during installation and to select a good password for your admin account. Now we should setup two users to test if the server works according to our expectations. ejabberd provides a powerful CLI
ejabberdctl that can be used to configure the server while it’s running.
basti@home:~$ sudo service ejabberd restart basti@home:~$ sudo ejabberdctl register alice my.fqdn !strongPass123 basti@home:~$ sudo ejabberdctl register bob my.fqdn 123strongPass!
This will give us two users firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. For the server to work from another machine, you need to make sure that the following ports are open for TCP and UDP connections.
You can inspect the server’s current state using systemd control.
basti@home:~$ sudo service ejabberd status ● ejabberd.service - A distributed, fault-tolerant Jabber/XMPP serve Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ejabberd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since So 2017-02-19 20:50:52 CET; 1 day 20h ago Process: 1299 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/ejabberdctl start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 1356 (beam.smp) ...
By default, ejabberd will be started with an user of the same name, that has privilege to access the shell.
basti@home:~$ cat /etc/passwd ejabberd:x:117:125::/var/lib/ejabberd:/bin/sh
So regarding security it does not hurt to take away that privileges.
basti@home:~$ sudo usermod -s /usr/sbin/nologin ejabberd
This can be reverted by running..
basti@home:~$ sudo usermod -s /bin/sh ejabberd
Client-side with profanity
My tool of choice here has to be profanity5. It’s a clean, fully-featured and very usable (as in “usable for CLI-friends”).
basti@home:~$ sudo apt-get install profanity -y
After starting profanity both users can login using the
$ /connect firstname.lastname@example.org 19:11:00 - Connecting as email@example.com 19:11:00 - firstname.lastname@example.org logged in successfully, online (priority 0).
By default Alice and Bob are not able to see each other, but can still exchange messages. To start a chat Alice could execute..
$ /msg email@example.com
Both users will see a display indicating an unencrypted session with an offline user.
firstname.lastname@example.org/profanity [offline] [unencrypted]
To see if the other contact is online, one has to add the contact to the roster and then request a subscription.
$ /roster add email@example.com 19:16:24 - Roster item added: firstname.lastname@example.org $ /sub request email@example.com 19:16:55 - Sent subscription request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
In this case Alice requested the subscription and Bob must reply..
19:18:05 - Received authorization request from email@example.com 19:18:05 - *firstname.lastname@example.org Authorization request, type '/sub allow' to accept or '/sub deny' to reject $ /sub allow
Finally for the sake of simplicity Alice sets a nickname for Bob’s full Jabber ID.
$ /roster nick email@example.com bob 19:21:10 - Nickname for firstname.lastname@example.org set to: bob.
Off-the-record messaging6 (OTR) is an easy-to-use encryption mechanism supported by most XMPP clients. In contrast to PGP OTR messaging is designed to provide
- Deniable authentication7 between participants, i.e., participants can be confident about message authenticity, but not to third parties after the conversation is over.
- Forward secrecy8, i.e., a random secret key is generated per session preventing long-term key compromisation.
To initiate an OTR-based chat, both parties need to generate their private key first.
$ /otr gen 19:46:01 - Generating private key, this may take some time. 19:46:01 - Moving the mouse randomly around the screen may speed up the process! 19:46:01 - Private key generation complete.
Now either Alice or Bob can start the OTR-session.
$ /otr start 19:47:52 ! OTR session started (untrusted).
Notice that the chat header now indicates an OTR session, but in an untrusted state. Alice and Bob need to authenticate each other. This can be achieved by testing a common secret. Alice could ask..
$ /otr question "where did we first met?" "concert" 19:50:32 ! Awaiting authentication from email@example.com...
..and Bob needs to answer..
19:50:33 ! firstname.lastname@example.org wants to authenticate your identity with the following question: 19:50:33 ! where did we first met? 19:50:33 ! use '/otr answer <answer>'. $ /otr answer "concert" 19:51:30 ! email@example.com successfully authenticated you.
The same process needs to be repeated from Bob to Alice and afterwards both parties will see an indication like this..
$ firstname.lastname@example.org/profanity [online] [OTR] [trusted]
Well… everytime I got in contact with PGP it ended up with headaches and hours of frustration. Not even speaking about principle issues with PGP9 here. That applies to PGP for profanity as well. Profanity utilizes a preinstalled GnuPG10 agent and libgpgme11 to access private and public keys from the agent. As of today you’d receive profanity 0.4.7 utilizing libgpgme 1.6.0 from the package sources when installing profanity in a system described below.
In theory one should be able to list preinstalled keys by running..
$ /pgp keys 20:09:43 - PGP keys: 20:09:43 - Basti Tee <email@example.com> 20:09:43 - ID : E5687E2D5801ABCA 20:09:43 - Fingerprint : 74DB ZV0A E807 DA3C F421 5335 E0EB 5E2D 5801 CE7A 20:09:43 - Type : PUBLIC, PRIVATE
Long story short: I never managed to consistently setup PGP for profanity. I somehow managed to temporarily access the keys by working with newer GnuPG versions and profanity build from scratch, but nothing to base a tutorial on. The whole story is documented in a GitHub issue11, involving other developers failing similarly and might or might not be solved in the future.
With a recent linux-based distribution, it turned out to be quite simple to setup an XMPP-based communication on the command line including encryption. I would highly recommend to go for OTR-encryption, since it is not only easier to set up, but also supports forward secrecy and is supported in most clients - including non-linux clients. An interesting project for further investigation is the omemo encryption12 by Daniel Gultsch13 beside further hardening of the involved systems14.
References and further reading
Special thanks to bascht for helping me out with debugging the PGP issues.